Statins, good or bad.

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rjj04
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by rjj04 » July 22, 2018, 10:30 am

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hyper ... emia#genes

Familial hypercholesterolemia?

Apparently 1 in 400 Americans might be affected? 1:200-250? Genetic abnormalities involved. That NIH site says there are genetic tests that can check for FH.

" FH likely accounts for 2%-3% of myocardial infarctions in individuals younger than age 60 years."
- from the NIH site.

Looks like some people who have been fighting high LDL levels from a young age ought to test for this FH.
The HDL and triglyceride’s are at normal levels, yet LDL is high?



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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by rjj04 » July 22, 2018, 10:59 am

Interesting story in the link below of a woman on a vegan diet for 12 years, who still had high cholesterol numbers... she got tested for this FH, and found she had that. So, then she went whole hog and cut cooking oils out of her diet and dropped her cholesterol numbers way down. It seems, that even with FH, and not taking statins, one can keep FH under control... but it takes massive will power. Yikes!

http://www.vegsource.com/sarah-taylor/v ... terol.html

For the rest of us, without this FH, >99%, it is not an issue thank goodness.

I'm probably annoying a few people with all these posts, so I'll go about my biz now.
Cheers!!

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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » July 23, 2018, 11:20 pm

mixed messages on statins all i know is its a billion dollar business for those yanks

from the dailymail article

Are statins really the wonder-drug that everyone says they are?

Last updated at 22:06 23 January 2007

Two experts give the arguments for and against statins...

Yes says Dr Jane Armitage, Reader in Clinical Epidemiology at Oxford University

There is a huge amount of evidence that taking statins saves lives and reduces heart attacks and the need for bypass surgery and similar types of operation.

We are all at risk of heart disease and there is a lot of evidence that more people should be taking statins rather than fewer.

Most sensible people accept there is a link between the risk of heart disease and somebody's cholesterol level.

We have been involved in a very large trial involving 20,000 UK volunteers who took a statin for five years.

We saw fewer deaths and strokes and few significant side effects in the group takng statins than those who did not.

Our findings were that the more you lower your cholesterol the better the benefit you get. There were no significant side effects at all.

A wider study, of 90,000 people from different parts of the world backs up the view that statins are safe.

In our Western diet, which most of us live on it is hard to make big changes to our cholesterol level, although some people manage to lower their cholesterol level on a low fat diet, but it's very hard to comply with over a lifetime.

Whereas if you take a statin tablet you will get a big change in your cholesterol.

When drugs are as well tolerated as statins are - and you only have to take a single pill each night - people can generally improve their life expectancy.

Heart disease is the biggest killer in the

country. Last year around 100,000 people died from the disease - a great deal more than breast cancer, which kills 2,300.

Each year about 1.3 million people have a heart attack and about two million people suffer from angina.

Statins have been incredibly successful in treating heart disease. Much of the fall in death rates since 2000 from heart disease can be put down to a tripling in the prescription of statins.

Statins saved 9,700 lives in 2005 compared with 2,900 lives saved in 2000 according to Department of Health statistics.

If people stop taking statins that will be a public health disaster and indirectly will lead to people dying, and that's sad and tragic.

No says Dr Malcolm Kendrick, a GP who works with the European Society of Cardiology

Statins are hailed as wonder-drugs. The reality is that, for a few people, they are beneficial.

For the majority they provide no benefits, cost a huge amount of money and create a series of unpleasant side-effects.

For a man diagnosed with heart disease, it is probably a good idea take a statin to reduce the risk of further heart disease.

However, a man without heart disease will not live one day longer by taking a statin.

And for a woman, with or without heart disease, taking a statin is a waste of time.

Yet doctors are urging all men and women with a cholesterol level greater than five to take statins.

This is the vast majority of the adult population - as 80 per cent of adults in the UK have a cholesterol greater than five.

By the age of 50 this figure is nearly 90 per cent. Statins have many effects - one of which is lowering cholesterol.

But it is becoming increasingly clear that as lowering cholesterol does not prevent heart disease, targeting people with high cholesterol will have no effect.

The over-prescription of statins is already having massive financial implications to the NHS. The cost of prescribing statins is set to reach £1 billion a year shortly.

And this figure does not include cholesterol tests, and consultations with doctors and nurses.

Add these costs in and we could well be looking at £2 billion a year, and this figure is set to go ever higher.

This would not be such a big issue if it were not for the fact that statins have some pretty unpleasant side-effects up to, and including, death.

Statins have been directly implicated in several hundred deaths in the US. Apart from killing people, statins create many other, lesser, side-effects.

The commonest is muscle pain. Although the text-books say this is rare, the reality is that up to 40 per cent of people will suffer some degree of pain and weakness.

An Austrian study on athletes showed that only 20 per cent of them could tolerate statins.

It is becoming increasingly clear that statins also have major effects on brain function. Side-effects here include depression, memory loss, confusion, irritability and aggression.

And statins also increase the risk of polyneuropathy - which leads to numbness, tingling and nerve pain - by over two thousand per cent.

Recently some disturbing new evidence has emerged that statins may cause Parkinson's and a Japanese study suggested a strong link to cancer.

888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888
i stopped taking them as my figures are not high AND THE SIDE EFFECTS WERE TOO BAD ..brain fog was bad and general feeling of malaise was bad ..so i use an aspirin of 37
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by kopkei » July 24, 2018, 8:17 am

well , as info , everyone whom has problem high cholesterol hereditary like me ,will have to take something ,as diet only will not be enough ..so regular blood checks are needed to know if what ever you are taking is working ...
an easy one.
as to prevent heart attack many people take an aspirin daily , in my case it is 80mg , gastric juice resistant coated,as a regular aspirin on daily base would not be healthy for your stomach and intestines ...
another medicine i need to take is bisoprolol,(to lower my heartbeat)buy them 5mg , but need only half/day ....
so taking these 3 medicines is to me a necessary evil ,as i also do not enjoy taking medicine, and as to the side effects? ,which i not yet have a problem after only 4 years , i will have to accept them too ,always better than dropping dead .... ;)

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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by Mex » July 25, 2018, 6:09 pm

CoQ10 does eliminate one side effect of taking statins.
If it looks good..and smells good..go for it..

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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » July 25, 2018, 7:55 pm

i alternate between aspirin and clopidogrel ..hey all have their side effects but try to take as less tabs as possible..otherwise quality of life descends .i take the view that statins damage the liver as i know whats doing me good or bad
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » August 1, 2018, 5:56 pm

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health ... -good.html

Why I've ditched statins for good

As experts clash over proposals that millions more of us take statins to prevent heart disease and stroke, a vascular surgeon explains why he feels better without them
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » August 25, 2018, 5:37 pm

There is a growing question mark over a commonly prescribed type of drug to lower cholestorol.

Some scientists and doctors believe statins are overused, but the latest round of debate in France goes even further.

Professors Bernard Debré and Philippe Even have published a guidebook for thousands of drugs – and they believe statins are useless.

Statin supporters

Since his heart attack, 44 year old Stéphane Ricois has regular appointments at a major hospital in Paris.

He has an unhealthy diet, he smokes and does not exercise, combining all the major risk factors. His specialist is particularly concerned about his high level of cholestorol.

“Before the doctor told me, I didn’t know I had high cholesterol. I’d never done the analysis before, because I was feeling fine.”

Now he takes Crestor, a drug in the statin family. Despite the controversy, many doctors still believe they prevent high cholesterol levels and cardio-vascular problems.

Senior cardiologist at Georges Pompidou Hospital, Nicolas Danchin said: “In coronary patients, that is people who have had a heart attack or angina, statins not only reduce the risk of having a recurrence, but quite simply they lower the risk of death or, more accurately, put the risk of death further away, and raise the life expectancy of these patients in a quite significant manner”.

Statins are among the most prescribed drugs in the world. In France they are used by at least 4-million people, costing the insurance companies 1.5-billion euros a year.

The French drug regulation agency ANSM believes they are an important weapon in a doctor’s arsenal.

Manager Joseph Emmerich said: “These drugs have been extremely well scrutinized for side effects and, anyway, there are not many drugs that can reduce mortality by 10% like statins.”

The alternative view

Not everyone though is such a fan. Renaud de Langlade heads several companies in the field of advanced electronics.

He took statins for ten years because his cholestorol readings were high.

It was a decade of painful side-effects, professional problems and a family crisis.

Now he has ditched the statins and he is back on top again.

“Mainly I felt fatigue. When I came home I was drained. I had no energy, nothing. And when I say I had no motivation I mean none whatsoever,” Langlade explained.

“In the morning when I was back in the office, I was not 100% with the clients. But when I stopped the statins, even before I started exercise again, I felt much better, 10 times better, No more anxiety or stress, no more troubles and I could sleep. I returned to the normal workrate I had before. “

One leading cardiologist has changed his mind about statins.

Michel de Lorgeril from Grenoble University now believes they serve no purpose in lowering cholestorol to prevent cardiac problems. Indeed he even thinks they are dangerous.

“We’ll come to the inevitable conclusion in the end that these drugs are unnecessary and toxic, they must be removed from the market and the health service must stop paying for them,” Lorgeril said. “As professors Even and Debré have already said, if you really want to protect yourself from heart disease and stroke, you should turn to something other than anti-cholesterol drugs.”

There are already other ways of looking after your heart that are unanimously endorsed by medical world.

Exercise is one. Saying goodbye to tobacco and animal fat is another, and saying hello to a Mediterranean style diet, full of fresh veg.

http://www.euronews.com/2013/03/19/stat ... ing-debate
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » August 25, 2018, 5:48 pm

5. A heart-failure drug offers hope

We thought we had reached our limits in our ability to effectively treat heart failure. But in clinical trials, a new drug called LCZ696 cut the risk of death and hospitalizations by 20 percent, compared with enalapril, our gold standard drug for the past 20 years. The Food and Drug Administration has put LCZ696 on fast-track status; it may be approved this year.
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » August 25, 2018, 5:58 pm

Decorative image
Does high cholesterol run in your family? Why Familial Hypercholesterolaemia is called the ‘silent assassin’
Some 120,000 Britons are at risk of heart disease and stroke due to inherited high cholesterol – and many don’t even know it. Could you have Familial Hypercholesterolaemia?

Does high cholesterol run in your family?
Lisa Salmon
By Lisa Salmon
Last updated: 12 July 2015, 17:23 BST
Print this story

Has someone in your family had a heart attack or stroke at a very young age, or has a routine test shown your cholesterol levels are very high? If so, you could have Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH), one of the most common genetic conditions in the UK.

FH is known as the 'silent assassin' because although it can cause exceptionally high cholesterol levels leading to an increased risk of early heart disease, stroke and death, 85% of people with the condition remain undiagnosed and untreated.

It occurs in at least one in 500 people (120,000) in the UK who've inherited a faulty gene from one or both parents which leaves the body unable to process cholesterol properly. People with the condition may have cholesterol levels that are double or triple those of the general population.

Now a new campaign, Heart of the Family, is trying to raise awareness of FH and is urging people to get tested for it if they have a family history of early heart attack or stroke, or if they already know they have FH in the family.

The symptoms of FH

The two main indicators of FH are abnormally high levels of cholesterol, and a family history of high cholesterol or early heart disease, including heart attacks and stroke.

Most people don't show visible signs of FH, meaning the condition may not be diagnosed until cardiovascular problems become apparent. However, sometimes there are visible symptoms, especially when LDL-C (‘Bad’ cholesterol) is very high. These include:

• Swollen tendons on the back of the heel (xanthoma) and hand.
• Yellow deposits in the skin around the eyes (xanthelasmata).
• A white deposit of cholesterol in the shape of an arc around the coloured part of the eye (corneal arcus).

An FH diagnosis may be confirmed by a genetic test, but as every possible genetic variant isn't yet understood, the diagnosis can also be made on clinical grounds.

Once a diagnosis is confirmed, it's important that all family members including siblings, children, parents, grandparents and first cousins are tested for the condition.

What causes FH?

FH isn't caused by an unhealthy lifestyle, but from inheriting a defective gene from at least one parent. Each child has a 50% risk of inheriting FH if one of their parents has the faulty gene.

Someone with FH will have had high levels of cholesterol from birth – not just from middle-age, as is the case with many people without FH who have high cholesterol (common hypercholesterolaemia).

Bad cholestorol

The type of cholesterol that increases in FH is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or ‘bad’ cholesterol), which can block or narrow blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

In fact, 50% of men and 30% of women with FH will have developed heart disease by the time they're 50 and 60 years old respectively.

Treating FH

Although FH isn't curable, drugs and lifestyle measures can help reduce the build-up of the blood vessel-blocking fatty deposits produced by too much LDL-C.

To reduce the risk of FH causing serious or even fatal harm, people with the condition should:

• Stop smoking;
• Only drink alcohol in moderation;
• Maintain a healthy weight;
• Exercise regularly;
• Eat a healthy diet including five-a-day fruit and veg and other heart-healthy foods such as soya, wholegrains, and foods rich in unsaturated fats like nuts, oily fish and avocado;
• Take cholesterol-lowering medications.

What the experts say

Jules Payne, chief executive of the cholesterol charity Heart UK, stresses: “Early diagnosis and effective treatment reduces the risk of heart disease and can help ensure that people with FH have a normal life expectancy.”

And GP Dr Sarah Jarvis, past chair of the Heart UK healthcare committee, adds: “While siblings and children of someone with FH have a 50% risk of inheriting it themselves, it can also affect second and third generation relatives, so it's vital that family members are tested for FH as early as possible.

“FH is a silent assassin and too often goes undetected until it’s too late.”

For more information about FH, visit Heart of the Family.


Decorative image
Does high cholesterol run in your family? Why Familial Hypercholesterolaemia is called the ‘silent assassin’
Some 120,000 Britons are at risk of heart disease and stroke due to inherited high cholesterol – and many don’t even know it. Could you have Familial Hypercholesterolaemia?

Does high cholesterol run in your family?
Lisa Salmon
By Lisa Salmon
Last updated: 12 July 2015, 17:23 BST
Print this story

Has someone in your family had a heart attack or stroke at a very young age, or has a routine test shown your cholesterol levels are very high? If so, you could have Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH), one of the most common genetic conditions in the UK.

FH is known as the 'silent assassin' because although it can cause exceptionally high cholesterol levels leading to an increased risk of early heart disease, stroke and death, 85% of people with the condition remain undiagnosed and untreated.

It occurs in at least one in 500 people (120,000) in the UK who've inherited a faulty gene from one or both parents which leaves the body unable to process cholesterol properly. People with the condition may have cholesterol levels that are double or triple those of the general population.

Now a new campaign, Heart of the Family, is trying to raise awareness of FH and is urging people to get tested for it if they have a family history of early heart attack or stroke, or if they already know they have FH in the family.

The symptoms of FH

The two main indicators of FH are abnormally high levels of cholesterol, and a family history of high cholesterol or early heart disease, including heart attacks and stroke.

Most people don't show visible signs of FH, meaning the condition may not be diagnosed until cardiovascular problems become apparent. However, sometimes there are visible symptoms, especially when LDL-C (‘Bad’ cholesterol) is very high. These include:

• Swollen tendons on the back of the heel (xanthoma) and hand.
• Yellow deposits in the skin around the eyes (xanthelasmata).
• A white deposit of cholesterol in the shape of an arc around the coloured part of the eye (corneal arcus).

An FH diagnosis may be confirmed by a genetic test, but as every possible genetic variant isn't yet understood, the diagnosis can also be made on clinical grounds.

Once a diagnosis is confirmed, it's important that all family members including siblings, children, parents, grandparents and first cousins are tested for the condition.

What causes FH?

FH isn't caused by an unhealthy lifestyle, but from inheriting a defective gene from at least one parent. Each child has a 50% risk of inheriting FH if one of their parents has the faulty gene.

Someone with FH will have had high levels of cholesterol from birth – not just from middle-age, as is the case with many people without FH who have high cholesterol (common hypercholesterolaemia).

Bad cholestorol

The type of cholesterol that increases in FH is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or ‘bad’ cholesterol), which can block or narrow blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

In fact, 50% of men and 30% of women with FH will have developed heart disease by the time they're 50 and 60 years old respectively.

Treating FH

Although FH isn't curable, drugs and lifestyle measures can help reduce the build-up of the blood vessel-blocking fatty deposits produced by too much LDL-C.

To reduce the risk of FH causing serious or even fatal harm, people with the condition should:

• Stop smoking;
• Only drink alcohol in moderation;
• Maintain a healthy weight;
• Exercise regularly;
• Eat a healthy diet including five-a-day fruit and veg and other heart-healthy foods such as soya, wholegrains, and foods rich in unsaturated fats like nuts, oily fish and avocado;
• Take cholesterol-lowering medications.

What the experts say

Jules Payne, chief executive of the cholesterol charity Heart UK, stresses: “Early diagnosis and effective treatment reduces the risk of heart disease and can help ensure that people with FH have a normal life expectancy.”

And GP Dr Sarah Jarvis, past chair of the Heart UK healthcare committee, adds: “While siblings and children of someone with FH have a 50% risk of inheriting it themselves, it can also affect second and third generation relatives, so it's vital that family members are tested for FH as early as possible.

“FH is a silent assassin and too often goes undetected until it’s too late.”

For more information about FH, visit Heart of the Family.

Decorative image
Does high cholesterol run in your family? Why Familial Hypercholesterolaemia is called the ‘silent assassin’
Some 120,000 Britons are at risk of heart disease and stroke due to inherited high cholesterol – and many don’t even know it. Could you have Familial Hypercholesterolaemia?

Does high cholesterol run in your family?
Lisa Salmon
By Lisa Salmon
Last updated: 12 July 2015, 17:23 BST
Print this story

Has someone in your family had a heart attack or stroke at a very young age, or has a routine test shown your cholesterol levels are very high? If so, you could have Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH), one of the most common genetic conditions in the UK.

FH is known as the 'silent assassin' because although it can cause exceptionally high cholesterol levels leading to an increased risk of early heart disease, stroke and death, 85% of people with the condition remain undiagnosed and untreated.

It occurs in at least one in 500 people (120,000) in the UK who've inherited a faulty gene from one or both parents which leaves the body unable to process cholesterol properly. People with the condition may have cholesterol levels that are double or triple those of the general population.

Now a new campaign, Heart of the Family, is trying to raise awareness of FH and is urging people to get tested for it if they have a family history of early heart attack or stroke, or if they already know they have FH in the family.

The symptoms of FH

The two main indicators of FH are abnormally high levels of cholesterol, and a family history of high cholesterol or early heart disease, including heart attacks and stroke.

Most people don't show visible signs of FH, meaning the condition may not be diagnosed until cardiovascular problems become apparent. However, sometimes there are visible symptoms, especially when LDL-C (‘Bad’ cholesterol) is very high. These include:

• Swollen tendons on the back of the heel (xanthoma) and hand.
• Yellow deposits in the skin around the eyes (xanthelasmata).
• A white deposit of cholesterol in the shape of an arc around the coloured part of the eye (corneal arcus).

An FH diagnosis may be confirmed by a genetic test, but as every possible genetic variant isn't yet understood, the diagnosis can also be made on clinical grounds.

Once a diagnosis is confirmed, it's important that all family members including siblings, children, parents, grandparents and first cousins are tested for the condition.

What causes FH?

FH isn't caused by an unhealthy lifestyle, but from inheriting a defective gene from at least one parent. Each child has a 50% risk of inheriting FH if one of their parents has the faulty gene.

Someone with FH will have had high levels of cholesterol from birth – not just from middle-age, as is the case with many people without FH who have high cholesterol (common hypercholesterolaemia).

Bad cholestorol

The type of cholesterol that increases in FH is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or ‘bad’ cholesterol), which can block or narrow blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

In fact, 50% of men and 30% of women with FH will have developed heart disease by the time they're 50 and 60 years old respectively.

Treating FH

Although FH isn't curable, drugs and lifestyle measures can help reduce the build-up of the blood vessel-blocking fatty deposits produced by too much LDL-C.

To reduce the risk of FH causing serious or even fatal harm, people with the condition should:

• Stop smoking;
• Only drink alcohol in moderation;
• Maintain a healthy weight;
• Exercise regularly;
• Eat a healthy diet including five-a-day fruit and veg and other heart-healthy foods such as soya, wholegrains, and foods rich in unsaturated fats like nuts, oily fish and avocado;
• Take cholesterol-lowering medications.

What the experts say

Jules Payne, chief executive of the cholesterol charity Heart UK, stresses: “Early diagnosis and effective treatment reduces the risk of heart disease and can help ensure that people with FH have a normal life expectancy.”

And GP Dr Sarah Jarvis, past chair of the Heart UK healthcare committee, adds: “While siblings and children of someone with FH have a 50% risk of inheriting it themselves, it can also affect second and third generation relatives, so it's vital that family members are tested for FH as early as possible.

“FH is a silent assassin and too often goes undetected until it’s too late.”

For more information about FH, visit Heart of the Family.
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » September 18, 2018, 5:34 pm

more bad feedback on statins this week

https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/he ... ar-disease

Statins use ‘of doubtful benefit’
THERE is no evidence that high levels of “bad” cholesterol cause heart disease and the widespread use of statins is “of doubtful benefit”, according to a study by 17 international physicians.
By Gillian Crawley
PUBLISHED: 02:54, Tue, Sep 18, 2018 | UPDATED: 03:04, Tue, Sep 18, 2018


https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/7280954/h ... -evidence/

DOCTORS have found there is no evidence of a link between high levels of bad cholesterol and heart disease, a study says.

And with this claim, a number of leading cardiologists say statins, taken by millions of Brits to tackle cholesterol, don't have any benefit.

Their findings, published in the Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, suggest the drugs won't treat heart disease, as they say high bad cholesterol levels don't necessarily lead to heart disease.

The 17 physicians from across the world appear to have dispelled the theory that there are links between having high LDL-C levels - known as bad cholesterol - and fatty deposits that clog arteries.

Experts have clashed for years as they argue both for and against statins and their effect.

But while they do agree that they are a lifesaver for people who have already had a heart attack, the study based on about 1.3million patients' data indicates it could be of no use as a preventative measure.
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by Faraday » September 18, 2018, 6:07 pm

If anyone knows the title of these findings, I can d/l it so we can have a proper look at what is said exactly.

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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » April 26, 2019, 4:44 pm

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-47933345

Cholesterol-lowering "statin" drugs taken by millions of Britons may not work well enough in about half of those prescribed them, research suggests.

UK investigators looked at 165,000 patients on statins and found that for one in two, the drugs had too little effect on bad cholesterol - one of the big risk factors for heart disease.

They are not sure why statins appear to help some more than others.

Patients should not stop taking the drugs without seeing their doctor.

One possible explanation is patients not taking their prescribed drugs or doctors giving them at too low doses, experts suggest.

Cardiovascular disease kills about 150,000 people in the UK each year.
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by AlexO » April 26, 2019, 7:21 pm

UK Gov love this, no more paltry pension payouts.

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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » July 31, 2019, 8:44 pm

another jive assed report on statins as they dont mention all the other factors involved like smoking drinking diet exercise that effects heart attacks on over 75s whether they take statins or not

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/heal ... 28381.html
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Re: Statins, good or bad.

Post by yartims » July 31, 2019, 9:07 pm

https://www.irishnews.com/lifestyle/201 ... s-1665848/

THESE drugs are an alternative to statins to treat high cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disease, heart attack and stroke.

They work by inactivating a protein in the liver called proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) to reduce ‘bad' LDL cholesterol levels in the blood. Rather than daily tablets as with statins, they are injected once every two to four weeks.

Studies show evolocumab and alirocumab lower cholesterol levels in the blood by more than half. They also don't cause the side-effects associated with statins, such as muscle and joint pain – although long-term studies are needed as they reduce cholesterol to much lower levels than statins. The medicines were approved in 2016 but they are expensive, costing an estimated £4,000 per patient per year, compared with £12 a year for some statins. As a result, their use is often restricted to patients most at risk, such as those with familial hypercholesterolemia, a genetic condition that causes dangerously high cholesterol levels.

‘Both drugs have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease,' says Dr Andrew Chapman, a clinical lecturer in cardiology at the University of Edinburgh.

‘For example, in a large trial of evolocumab, “bad” cholesterol levels fell by 59 per cent, and future cardiovascular events [such as heart attack] were reduced by 15 per cent.

‘Although expensive, if these drugs reduce future risk and therefore use of other resources within the NHS, this may be justified.'
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